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Perform a Hard Drive Integrity Check

For 1&1 Dedicated Server Linux without RAID software/hardware

The Linux utility badblocks checks hard disks for bad sectors on the disk. If any of the disks of your server return any faulty sectors, please backup all crucial data. Then contact the dedicated server support team with your log file and request that the drive be replaced.

Please note:
Do not use the -w option on a device containing an existing file system, as this erases data. If you want to write-mode test on an existing file system, use the -n option.

To print a list of drives attached to the system use the fdisk -l command.

Read-only Mode

This will test the drive and write the results into a text file named sda.txt. The drive designation in this example needs to be replaced with the path of one of your server's drives. Specify a drive from the list printed by the fdisk command in place of /dev/sda (possibly /dev/hda on your server). This test can be done while in local mode.
badblocks -o sda.txt -vs /dev/sda

Non-destructive Read-Write Mode

This mode requires the server to be in rescue. Download the text file created by this process as it will not exist after you boot the machine back into local mode.
badblocks -o sda.txt -nvs /dev/sdb
For additional information, you may want to reference: